Shortcomings in EU Cooperation for Externalization of Asylum:

Lessons from Niger, Serbia, Tunisia and Turkey

Written by Bachirou Ayouba Tinni, Olga Djurovic and Rados Djurovic, Abdoulaye Hamadou, Meltem Ineli-Ciger, Gamze Ovacık, Fatma Raach, Hiba Sha’ath, Thomas Spijkerboer and Orçun Ulusoy / November 2023

This Policy Brief addresses European Union (EU) support for asylum systems in selected third countries – i.e. Niger, Serbia, Tunisia and Türkiye – through a range of instruments including technical means (advice, training, capacity building), operational assistance (such as Frontex operations in non-EU countries) as well as financial support for refugee status determination, refugee reception, migration and border management. Specific focus is given to the instruments’ compliance with transparency and accountability principles and international law, the extent to which the results achieved have been oriented towards facilitating mobility or the containment of asylum seekers and refugees, as well as their alignment with the United Nations Global Compact on Refugees (GCR).